Monday, May 25, 2020
Cognitive development is defined as the growth and change in a personÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to perform mental tasks including thinking, understanding and reasoning (California Department of Education, 2014). Cognitive development is a process involving a complex interaction between biological and environmental factors (Feinstein, 2003, as cited in Wong, Edwards, 2013). There are multiple factors that occur in early childhood including breastfeeding, parental intelligence and obstetric complications that have been researched to understand the effect that they have on children cognitive development extending into adolescence and adulthood. However, research regarding these variables has been met with several limitations. It will be argued that theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This descriptive research design focused on measuring caregiver sensitivity and stimulation using two separate scales. Sensitivity was assessed through the caregiverÃ¢â¬â¢s response to cues and signals of the child while stimulation was measured by the degree that the caregiver attempts to enhance child development and foster learning. The level of cognitive development of the child was then measured using the Bayleys Scale of Development. Their results affirmed the importance of childcare as they suggested that even a small increase of the developmental stimulation given by the caregiver in childcare may advance an infantÃ¢â¬â¢s cognitive development. The findings of Albers et al. that childcare providing stimulation enhances cognitive development are further supported by Li, Farkas, Duncan, Burchinal, and Lowe (2013) who studied the relationship between the quality of childcare and the level of cognitive development. The participants recruited for this study were a socioeconomically diverse sample of American children and their family. This study by Li et al. then divided early childhood into two significant developmental periods (infant toddler and the preschool years). A quality threshold was then used to distinguish between low and high quality childcare and then infant and preschool cognitive development was tested. This study by Li et al. supported the findings of Albers et al. as it described that highShow MoreRelatedThe Impact Of Childcare On Children s Social And Cognitive Development2900 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pages The Impact of Childcare on ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Social and Cognitive Development Kaitlyn Fillmore The Pennsylvania State University The Impact of Childcare on ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Social and Cognitive Development Introduction Over the years the long-term effects of preschool childcare has been a topic of growing interest. The use of these programs have grown dramatically over the years, and more than half of all three to five year olds in the United States attend childcare centers prior to kindergartenRead MoreEssay on The Benefits of High Quality Child Care1849 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pageschildren. At a young age, a childÃ¢â¬â¢s social and cognitive skills are continuing to take shape and the amount of time spent in these facilities has a resilient impact on a childÃ¢â¬â¢s development. With proper and superior care no matter the time spent, such positive effects on a childÃ¢â¬â¢s development should endure in a childÃ¢â¬â¢s cognitive and social development. In other words, there is a great benefit of childcare/daycare attendance on a childÃ¢â¬â¢s development. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s been noted that recent studies specify thatRead MoreA Family s Economic Deprivation Most Dominant Factor Of A Child s Health1305 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesimpact the development of children? Key Research Findings: The article states that family income is the most dominant factor of a childÃ¢â¬â¢s cognitive development out of all other conventional measures such as ethnicity, female headship or maternal education. However income and economic status only has a faint connection and cannot be considered as synonyms. Moreover the duration and timing of economic deprivation has a strong correlation between the potential detriments on childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s development. ConverselyRead MoreKeep and Eppe1023 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageseffective provision of pre-school education (EPPE) project is a longitudinal study that investigates the care and development of young children from age three to seven years. It focuses on the effects of children in different types of preschool provision and concentrates on their intellectual, social and behavioural characteristics. It also focuses on factors affecting the childÃ¢â¬â¢s development such as interaction between child, family and their preschool environment (Melhu ish, E. And Petrogiannis, K, 2006)Read MoreEssay on The Effect of Day Care on Children967 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Effect of Day Care on Children Because many stay at home mothers are entering the work force, there is a higher demand for day care centers for the mothersÃ¢â¬â¢ children. The topic of day care centers and whether they are beneficial to young children is becoming discussed more frequently. An increasing number of parents are becoming more cautious about the type of childcare they choose for their children. Some parents are adhering to the traditional way of raising their children by staying at homeRead MoreEarly Childhood Program : Early Head Start Program1313 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIntroduction While there are several early childhood program models from which to choose, not all programs are equal in their goals and outcomes. Parents and policy makers have shown increased awareness for the quality of care and education in childhood programs (Epstein, 1999). A high-quality program is one that ascribes to developmentally appropriate practice while allowing children to take charge of their own education (Epstein, 1999). The author will discuss Early Head Start, Chicago Child-ParentRead MoreSocialization Outside The Home Is Beneficial For A Child s Social And Academic Development Essay1821 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesacademic development, the long-term benefits are a topic of controversy among many. Barnett (1995) found that early childhood programs can have large short-term benefits for children and sizable long-term effects on school achievement, grade retention, placement in special education, and social adjustment. He obtained these results through a study assessing 36 studies divided into two categories. In 15 of the studies, researchers developed their own child-care programs to study the effects of modelRead MoreChildren of Working Mothers vs. Stay At Home Mothers and Their Effects1102 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMothers and Their Effects Looking back at the past there have been women struggling for equal rights throughout the United States of America this includes the right to work or stay at home with their children. Ever since women started working the argument has been forthcoming over mothers who work and those who stay home with their children. One concern is what differences, if any, are there in children who are raised by stay-at-home moms and working moms. This includes effects on their childrenRead MoreHigh / Scope Curriculum And Connect Research Studies Relevant1595 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesinstruction, cognitive development, content knowledge, society s culture and assessment. The purpose of this study is to analyze High/Scope curriculum and connect research studies relevant to this model. Moreover, theoretical perspectives and best practices in teaching are discussed in relation to the model in a real classroom context. Observations garnered from an early childhood High/Scope inspired classroom will be consi dered regarding its practices and implementation of the model. Overview of High/ScopeRead MoreNon-Parental Child Care963 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesconsiderations like inability of the centers to accommodate individual interests, needs, and routines and inflexibility in selecting and paying for the required hours. Family Child Care: This non-parental child care is provided in a home other than the childrens own home by a provider who is often a mother with her own children. Family child care is conducted in smaller and home-like settings with one consistent adult who are licensed by the states department of children. Some of the advantages of family
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Sample details Pages: 13 Words: 3785 Downloads: 9 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Business Essay Type Analytical essay Did you like this example? In 1952 two different companies Shell Petroleum Company and Burmah Oil Company, UK signed an agreement with the Indian Government to prepare a new refinery in Mumbai and the name of the refinery was Burmah Oil Refineries Ltd. In 1957 it started and worked in a proper flow, In 1976 Indian Government changed their policy and nationalized the petroleum industry. Indian Government acquired the complete equity in Burmah Oil Refineries Ltd and changed from Burmah Oil Refineries Ltd to Bharat Refineries Ltd. In 1977 the Indian Government again changed its name to Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd. (BPCL). Industry Environment Indian governments acquired BPCL in 1970 in the act of nationalisation arrangement of Indian governments. In 1991 It was monitored and under the supervision of government till economic reorganizations. Government monitored the all the expenses, raw materials and the end products purchase and selling price, manufacture capacity, uses of the raw materials, circulation, and what is the return on investment were monitored by the government. Three main combined marketing and purifying companies were there at that time and many small and independent companies were supplying their product to these companies. Government improved their strategy for work and enlarged the distribution network in all over the country, like setup new retail outlets to reduce the competition along with their competitor. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Facing The Challenges Of Privatization Today Business Essay" essay for you Create order Privatization As a part of the ongoing economic reforms the government was actively pursuing privatization of the public sector companies. A couple of senior managers state Privatization is a slight that will happen. One cant bother too much about the future without knowing what is going to happen. It is inevitable and we cant do about it. We dont know what will happen to BPCL and us. Tomorrow we may not exist as BPCL. We might become a part of Shell or Reliance or some other organization. The impeding competition as well as the uncertainty of existence in the present form created anxiety in the organization across all levels. Some considered it to be an opportunity where as others considered it as a let down by the government and the organization. The organization initiated numerous changes in order to transform itself to face the future competition. Initiation of the Restructuring Process The initiation for restructuring the organization was by the personal initiative of the CMD Mr. U Sundararajan. He had earlier been appointed by the government to study the petroleum industry in other countries as a preamble for deregulation. He had formed a cross well-designed team for studying the effectiveness of the models followed by different countries. Mr. Sundararajan and the team studied more than two hundred books and numerous articles on deregulation, oil industry and best practices. Mr. Sundararajan realized the inability of his organization to compete with MNCs with deregulation. He started the reorganization process through discussions with the top management, the board and the government The path which BPCL LTD choose to face the competition and initiatives taken in terms of organizational Behaviour has been assessed in this assignment. For the purpose of analyzing the focus was laid down on key aspects of organization behavior which are organizational structur e, change of team and organizational culture and climate in terms of Coaches of Organizational Learning which can be correlated to the case. Coaches of Organizational Learning Consultants from Innovation Associates (a subsidiary of ADL) initially trained a group of trainer in systems idea and organizational education. A team of around thirty full time coaches and more than sixty part time coaches were trained in turn by these. These coaches conducted two programs namely Visionary Leadership Planning (VLP) and Foundations of Organisational Learning (FOL). More than six hundred managers have undergone VLP and more than five thousand management and non-management staff have undergone FOL. VLP program is designed to help teams clarify and understand reasons for their unique existence, co-create team aspirations, realistically assess current reality and formulate a Strategy to cover up the gap. The teams identify High Leverage Results they are passionate about and assign responsibilities to a few members with the whole team agreeing to support the process. FOL program is designed to create a common language of learning in organizations. The coaches were instr umental in creating a non-threatening atmosphere for change and also in providing the inputs on systems thinking and learning organization, enabling effectiveness of the various task forces empowered for quick result changes. One of the trainer states We have applied for instructor education with skeptism. We later realized the importance of systems ideas and organizational education. The first program was a mind opening experience. The inputs on functional silos reflected our organization. Now we are hardcore followers of systems ideas. Communication Communication played a important role during out the change process. A bulletin was promoted that provided usual updates to the whole organization about the visioning exercise, the assessment of current reality, status of the quick fix opportunities and the new structure. In every stage the break through teams had a high level of interaction with the concerned divisions. The informal channel of communication was also taken care of by including community from all realistic constituencies in the change break through teams. A top down approach was used to communicate the change plan with help from the break through team members. One CUSECS member reiterates Communication played a fundamental role in CUSECS project. The common updates through the newsletter and informal communication through the members to their parent departments was useful in updating the whole organization quickly. We identified enablers in each department, people who are opinion shapers and we particularly e mbattled them. We convinced them first and then asked them to communicate to others about the change Top Management Involvement The CMD was occupied throughout the reorganization process. He communicated his hold to the change activities by personal involvement, and regular appreciation to the change management team and the particular task forces. He played the role of a mentor to the team members. He also interacted with a large number of employees during the visioning, assessment and finishing point stages. Young managers recount stories of his support to the change team, where he gave total freedom to come up with creative ideas and safe guarded them from backlashes from well-known constituencies. Mr. Sundararajan recalls In the prime period I talked to lots of group of people regarding the need for reorganization. The leader has to act not just talk. Lip service will not work for long. If individual says one will take of care of the subordinates then one has to when something happens Change Opportunities for Quick Results During the assessment process, the break through teams identified many opportunities where small changes were likely to produce foremost results. Special task forces for working on the identified opportunities were created and started working in equivalent. The job forces were provided with adequate training and were in constant communication with the break through teams. At one point of time there were more than six hundred task forces working across the organization on thousands of opportunities identified in the change plan. Market study, brand building, packaging, operational efficiency of plants, correct quantity and quality of products, cash collections, and safety are some areas where task forces worked to produce quick results. Creating a Shared Vision The visioning exercise was conducted to develop clarity and common understanding about the potential of the association. The visioning work out started with the panel. The exercise was extended across the company in a escalation approach flowing from the top management to the junior management facilitated by internal experts trained particularly for the same. The core of the vision as articulated by the organizational members across the organization is given below. Be the BEST Establish first class brands and Make the workplace exciting corporate image Improve boundary management Excellent customer care and service Fulfill social responsibilities, to Go for excellent performance and ethical operational efficiency Apply the best technology. Make people a source of improvement Make systems strong and dynamic. Below figure elaborates the nine broad themes in the shared vision of BPCL. The visioning exercise provided an opportunity for articulation of the aspirations of the people. The process brought the whole organization out of lethargy, and increased the energy levels and expectations on persons, teams and the company. Since the vision was iterated throughout the organization, there was greater buy in for the change. One of the managers states We were all amazed that the vision was so much in unison across the organization. It clearly stated that people had great aspirations but never expressed them. This exercise made us realize the possibilities for the future of BPCL. Change Plan Based on the inputs from the shared vision and current reality, a workshop was conducted to develop a change plan. The change plan came to six volumes with over one thousand and six hundred pages. The change plan included the Organizational assessment Well defined corporate values Vision articulated in terms of critical business processes, and Areas of change to achieve the vision Organizational Assessment Current Reality Based on the initial diagnosis by the CUSECS team and the visioning workshop for top management, it was decided that an organization wide assessment exercise would be conducted simultaneously with the shared visioning exercise. Six break through teams were formed. The teams were responsible for assessing the organizational reality in terms of Marketing, Lubricants and Refining Support services and management Logistics processes LPG. The marketing team looked at the customer management processes, product management processes and execution management processes. The refining team compared the effectiveness of the refinery; lube oil processing and LPG plants with the best international players taking into account the machinery age and technology employed. Various performance parameters like crude acquisition, energy consumption, and capital expenditure were assessed. The logistics team also looked at the existing logistics infrastructure, economics of supply and distributio n, opportunities for cost reduction, supply points vs. consumption centers, impact of taxes and duty, and comparison with benchmarks and competitors. The LPG team compared the LPG marketing with that of the international and local competitors. The customer base, pricing policies, interface between the customer and marketing and future plans were critically reviewed. The lubricants team analyzed the organizational competitive position in comparison to the competition. It also looked at the packaging, pricing, branding, trade channels, the existing joint venture arrangements, and future plans. The team responsible for support services and management processes evaluated the human resource practices (for example work culture, HR processes, training and development, and appraisal and compensation), the information systems (for example use of different software packages, integration and use of IT), and accounting practices in terms of clarity, speed and cost. The break through te ams also assessed the organizational structure in terms of roles and responsibilities, levels and accountability, human resource development in terms of training, appraisal and compensation. Each team interacted with all the stakeholders concerned including the unions, suppliers, distributors, customers, financial institutes, local communities, government officials, and so on. Assessment was carried out in a non- threatening manner, with constant and rich communication of the activities carried out by the break through teams. The assessment exercise created an internal environment for change. The organizational assessment exercise found the following Collective dissatisfaction with the status quo Low customer focus and customer orientation Huge gap between the vision and capabilities to achieve it, and Many opportunities for quick improvement Change Team A change team was formed with twenty-two managers nominated from various functions across levels. The team size grew to thirty as the project progressed. The team members had varied performance records, educational qualifications and experience. The CMD did not believe in giving importance to those with higher degrees over others. His philosophy was to provide an opportunity to average people in an empowered and enabled environment to achieve great results. Mr. Sundararajan says Initially when we formed the change team I asked for nominations from various departments and they nominated all kinds of people. I did not nominate the best mangers in BPCL because I have observed many times in my career, if people are given the right environment and opportunities they would rise up to it. And my faith was not misplaced. These youngsters did a wonderful job. The change project was titled CUSECS for Customer Service Customer Satisfaction. The consultant ADL trained the CUSECS team. The training included topics like negotiations, interpersonal effectiveness, presentations, systems thinking, and best practices. The CUSECS team was provided with all the information and support required to develop skills in diagnosis, change strategy formulation, organization design, and implementation. Those who could not take up the huge workload and stress were requested to leave and join their parent departments. The team conducted a short diagnosis of the organizational issues with facilitation by consultants and made presentations to the top management. One of the CUSECS team members state: We were initially frustrated and unable to understand why ADL wanted us to think through everything ourselves, rather than telling us what is best. Later, we appreciated their approach in enabling us to think and decide for ourselves what is best for the organization. We were trained exhaustively starting from presentation skills, negotiation skills to systems thinking and so on. Designing the New Structure There was a clear consensus among the change management team, top management team and the consultants that the functional structure would not be able to sustain initiatives taken to create the customer centric organization. The obvious solution was to create customer centric strategic business units (SBUs). The change management team with assistance of the consultants considered various options. The redesign process took about a month. The CMD was personally involved in this. To prevent any interference from day to day activities he officially took leave and was present as a resource person. The change team discussed the various choices in structure with all the stakeholders. There were apprehensions among senior managers regarding the new structure and no consensus emerged on the new structure. Politicking and power plays were observed, with each function trying to retain the existing status in terms of power and control. Finally the CMD personally called for a meeting of the func tional heads and other senior managers. Asking the group to discuss, negotiate and come with a concrete solution acceptable to everyone, he locked the room and waited outside. Finally a design was approved that was acceptable to all. The final structure was not the optimum structure as envisioned by the change team but one acceptable to all the members of the top management team. Implementation The new structure was rolled out in phased manner to ensure effective implementation. The new structure was first implemented in the LPG SBU. Based on the experience, the new design was implemented across the organization with necessary modifications. Further, in each of the proposed SBUs specific regions were identified and the new structure was implemented to verify the smooth functioning before full implementation. Organizational Structure The older structure was functionally organized. There were mainly four functions (refineries, marketing, finance and personnel) each headed by an executive director reporting to the (CMD). Other support departments like corporate affairs, legal, audit, vigilance, coordination and company secretary were directly under the CMD. The Director refinery was in charge of refinery, corporate planning, JV refineries and special projects. Other than corporate finance and marketing finance EDP was also under the Director finance. In marketing, there were different departments for retail, industry, LPG, lubricants and aviation segments. Corporate communication was also under Director meeting. The whole of India was divided into four regions and further into 22 divisions. Each region was headed by a Regional Manager who was in charge of all activities within the region and reported to the Director marketing. Each region had a manager in charge of each of regional personnel, regional engin eering, regional industrial customers, regional retail, and regional finance. Regional LPG was under regional industrial customers. The division was the responsibility of the Divisional Manager reporting to the Regional Manager. He had a manager each for sales, operations and engineering. Each of these was responsible for sales, depots and engineering respectively for all the customer segments. Across the marketing function, except for the corporate departments (LPG, industrial customer, etc.) specifically looking after a customer segment, every individual and role is focused on multiple customer segments. For example any strategy addressing the industrial customers originates from the Corporate Department (Industrial Customer), goes via the Director Marketing, Regional Manager, Divisional Manager to the Sales Officer. All of them are responsible for multiple customer segments like retail, LPG, industrial, etc. and deal with different classes of customers. Hence there was very lo w customer awareness in terms of the unique needs of the different customer segments, with no single individual at the operational level having clarity on any single customer segment. Moreover, the marketing strategy was formulated by people who were far from the customer with very low understanding of the customer they were targeting. The implementers were responsible for diverse customers with a low understanding of the logic of these strategies meant for each customer segment. Thus the old structure had created a bottleneck between the strategy formulators and implementers in terms of the regional structure, and between the field staff and the corporate offices and refinery. Activities of a business process are spread out across different functions and levels of hierarchy, engaging many individuals. There was a long chain of non-value adding linkages between any two activities targeting a business / customer. For example, when an industrial customer gives a special order of lu bes to the sales officer, the corporate lubes purchases the base oil, plant blends it, SD packs it and the sales officer sells it. The Sales Officer would communicate the order to the Divisional Manager, who passes it on to the Regional Manager. Then the order would be routed to the Corporate Lubes for processing. Everyone involved in the activities of this process belong to different functions and hierarchy levels. This long chain of communication had led to a lack of customer orientation, low awareness of customer needs and expectations and slow response. The New SBU Structure The new structure was focused on the business processes and the customer. The new structure at the top management level is the same. Five SBUs Retail, Lubes, Industry/Commercial, LPG and Aviation are customer centered SBUs and come under the director (marketing). The sixth SBU, Refinery along with two new departments IT Supply Chain and RD are under the director (refineries). Each SBU would have its own HR, IS, finance, logistics, sales, engineering, etc. The number of layers in the organization was reduced to four from six or seven. The major change is the introduction of the territories covering a smaller geographical area and focusing on specific customer segments. In retail SBU the new structure had 669 territories reporting to the four regional offices, where as in the earlier structure there were only 22 divisions which catered to all segments. In other SBUs the regional office was removed and territories were designed to directly report to the SBU heads. Each territo ry team leader was responsible for sales in the territory only for a specific product. The territory structure was designed to enable the field staff to focus on specific customer segments. Authority was also delegated down the hierarchy and decision making pushed to the lowest possible levels. Decisions earlier taken at the regional level were taken now at the territory level. Further authority was delegated to the role and not the hierarchy level. Administrative offices have been moved to supply locations that consist of 125 terminals for main fuels and 35 LPG bottling ones. In LPG SBU head office there are only nine personnel and across the territories even managers at senior positions have been forced to get business. The new design incorporated recalibration of roles and responsibilities and redeployment of more than two thousand people (around one fifth of total employee strength) across the organization. It created new roles at the front effectively using redundant manpower t o increase customer interface and interaction. Since the corporate and support functions are now located within the SBUs the new design included lateral linkage mechanisms (see Appendix C). Governance Councils, Process Councils, and Task forces (to address specific organizational issues) were the mechanisms for integrating the different parts of the organization. Some Salient Features of New Structure were Highly empowered work force Decentralized decision making De-linking of authority from hierarchical levels Orientation towards internal and external customers Regular market research and customer surveys Conscious brand building efforts Organizational Structure before redesign Organizational Structure after redesign Conclusion Bharat Petroleum believes long term relationship with their customer to reorientation and change in approach with the customers. Today, Bharat Petroleum is restructured into a Corporate Centre, Strategic Business Units (SBUs) and Shared Services and Entities. From the last many years Bharat Petroleum continues face many challenges of the quickly changing environment. Bharat petroleum make advance and changes their products and services according to the changing environment. In day by day changing in bharat petroleum only one factor has remained unchanged this is Bharat Petroleums employees which are the source of strength and motivation of Bharat Petroleums in their future innovations. Bharat Petroleum wants their employees to understand the complexity of the market, customers requirements, and offer the innovative products to meets the customers requirements. For Bharat Petroleum, promise by its staffs is a critical resource. BPCL believe that only a cheerful worker will pla ce his best result and a good relationship with the customs, Bharat Petroleum deployed and also will plan to implement several steps to make the organisation a great place to work or worker get best organisation environment. Hewitt Associates conducted a survey for Business Today magazine in the January 2001 issue to identify the best employers, and in this survey Bharat Petroleum was one of top ten employers in India. The main motive of the survey was to discover out which companies had really charged the expressive and intellectual energy of their employees. The companies who were in the top list were Hughes, ICICI, P and G, Asian Paints, Hewlett-Packard, HLL, Infosys, LG and Compaq. Bharat Petroleum adopts significant value-based HR methods for growth of individuals and their organisational skills with a assessment to provide them with a competitive edge and also to realise their private vision in tandem with the commercial vision. Bharat Petroleum has been conferred the Na tional HRD Award 2000 by National HRD Network for making Outstanding Contribution to HRD. At the National Petroleum Management Programme (NPMP) on Excellence in Creativity and Innovation (1999-2000), Bharat Petroleum employees bagged all the three awards in the individual category, along with four certificates of recognition in the team category.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
This paper will discuss some of the treatment options available for juvenile offenders with substance abuse problems. The paper will contain explanations of the available programs, how they work, who is eligible for them, and other factors. After discussing how the programs work this paper will then take a look at which programs seem to be working and lessening recidivism and which ones may not be as effective. In the past several years researchers have found intervention strategies and program models that hope to prevent juvenile delinquency and promote good social attitudes and development (Greenwood, 2008). More than 1,000,000 adolescents go through the American Criminal court system every year and of those approximately 160,000 juvenile offenders are sent to juvenile placement centers (Henggeler Schoenwald, 2011). The U.S. criminal justice system has been wise enough to realize that treatment programs need to be implemented in order to lessen recidivism in these young offend ers and help ensure that they go on to live healthy productive lives. Officials within the court system must weigh the interests of public safety with the needs of the young offender when deciding which program is best for the juvenile and which level of restriction is required (Austin, Johnson, Weitzer, 2011). An example of this idea would be that a juvenile offender who has committed a violent and/or serious crime may need to be confined in order to protect the safety of the public and/orShow MoreRelatedThe Juvenile Justice System1313 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Today s concept of the juvenile justice system is relatively new due to significant modifications in policy overtime. The justice system has been trying to figure out effective ways to treat juvenile criminal offenders successfully for years. The justice system did not always have a special category for juveniles and their crime. Juveniles was once treated as adults when they committed crimes and were subjected to harsh punis hments. The juvenile court was the culmination of efforts of the positivistRead MorePost-Traumatic Stress Disorder930 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesavoidance of reminders of trauma, and hyperarousal (Warner, Warner, Appenzeller, Hoge, 2013). Trauma comes in many different forms, however some of the most common forms of trauma that juvenile offenders will experience are loss and bereavement, domestic violence, emotional abuse, and physical abuse. Trauma exposure for youth involved in the justice system can begin at a young age, with one study showing that up to one-third of youth in the justice system experienced trauma before one yearRead MoreGrant Proposal. Second Chance Act Smart On Juvenile Justice:956 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSecond chance Act Smart on Juvenile Justice: Community Supervision Reform Program I. Statement of the Problem: The North Carolina Department of Public Safety (Division of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention) is requesting funds to provide juveniles a second chance through a community supervision reform program. The DepartmentÃ¢â¬â¢s goal for requesting these funds is to reduce the number of juveniles currently on probation. As of 2013, there were over 383,600 juveniles on probation. This programRead MoreRelationship Between Drug And Crime1050 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesshould persuade you to believe that crime drug are related. My essay will have quotes, facts, and reasoning, which will all revolve on my essential question. Drug related offenses and a drug-using lifestyle are major contributors to the U.S crime problem. Provisional data from 1991 show that among adult respondents ( 18-49 ), those who use cannabis (marijuana ) or cocaine were much more likely to commit crimes. The reportings of the use of alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine during 1991, 26.1% also `reportRead MoreDistinguishing Between Some Criminological Terms894 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDistinguishing Criminological Terms Juvenile delinquency refers specifically to the criminal activity of youth. Juvenile delinquency includes committing crimes and participation in other forms of illegal activities. Across the world, the existing legal systems have different sets of punishments and penalties for juvenile delinquency versus being tried as an adult. (Loeber, 1990) In many countries, the age when individuals are no longer classified as juveniles as may be tried for crimes as adultsRead MoreEssay female juvenile crime736 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesfemale crime in modern society. In addition, juvenile crime rates are on the rise, which combine for a void of research or information on female juvenile offenders. In general, crime rates for women offenders have risen since the 1990s. Increasing numbers of young women are also offending at higher rates. In a 1996 U.S. Department of Justice Report, the number of arrests of young women had doubled between 1989 and 1993. Twenty percent of all juvenile arrests were co mmitted by girls, an increaseRead MoreFemale Juveniles Are The Most Vulnerable927 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesFemale juveniles are known to be the most vulnerable. If they are growing up in poverty or suffering from abuse, their delinquent behavior are often leads to self-destruction. Female juveniles will most likely grow up to join street gangs, drop out of school, or become teenage mothers. Girls are the fastest growing segment of the juvenile justice system with minority females disproportionately represented among delinquent girls; two-thirds are girls of color. The majority have been subjected to someRead MoreThe Get-Tough Effectiveness Of Juvenile Recidivism. The1037 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Get-Tough Effectiveness of Juvenile Recidivism The reason for this research paper is to examine the history and the purpose the juvenile system. We will also examine the history and effectiveness of the Get- tough Law on juvenile recidivism, followed with the overall conclusion of the research. The Juvenile justice system has undergone many changes since its establishment in the 1890s. These changes were implemented by the desire to have a justice system which is sensitive and responsive toRead MoreMass Incarceration And Its Effects On Families, Communities, And Society1400 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesis felt by more and more individuals on a daily basis. Yet, those living free on the outside do not see a problem and many refuse to believe or even acknowledge that there is one. However, the United States has paved the way to create a cycle of endless incarceration for many people but especially for those of color. Such as the 1994 Violent Crime Control Act and the lack of substance abuse treatment in prisons. Overwhelmingly, mass incarceration has had a great impact on families, communitiesRead MoreCorrectional Psychologists Have Many Duties Within The Prison Setting Essay998 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageshave many duties within the prison setting. When offenders arrive to correctio nal institutes, the correctional psychologist conducts assessments to assist the offender in their rehabilitation process. For example, correctional psychologists provide assessment to prevent self harm, substance abuse, anger management and crisis intervention. They also develop programs to assist with recidivism of offenders (Bartol Bartol, 2012). Prior to an offender being release from prison, the correctional psychologist
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Exhausted, Kendra leaned back against the tree Essay Exhausted, Kendra leaned back against the tree. The quiet of the night surrounded her, and in the distance she could see a small orange glow here and there of fires set by those who had been forced to leave their homes and set up camp in this park. She closed her eyes, rested her arms on her knees, and put her head down on her arms, cushioned by the sweatshirt she wore. The sweatshirt smelled of fresh air and smoke. She pulled the sleeves down over her cold hands. She sat like that for a while, motionless and quiet, until she heard footsteps behind her: heavy, slow footsteps. Then she heard breathing, close. She held her own breath. The footsteps stopped. Kendra turned around slowly, clenching her fists. Oh, its you, she said, letting out her breath in relief. What are you doing here? Looking for you, I guess. What are you doing? Resting. Watching. Waiting. She stared off into the distance, but could see nothing but patches of flame and sparks, and smoke as it trailed off into the night. Im so . . . Tired? Hungry? Thirsty? All of that. And cold. Come on, then. Weve got a fire going, and Colin is out gathering more wood. Kendra got up slowly and stretched. Nathan came over and pulled her toward him, wrapping his arms around her. Kendra awkwardly accepted the hug. Kendra, Im going to take care of you, Nathan promised. Youll see. You dont have to worry. Lets go. Kendra said as she started to walk down the hill. She tried not to show her annoyance at what he just said. Why did he think she needed him to take care of her? Because she was a woman? It didnt help that she was so small. Men thought she looked like she needed taking care of. Colin was standing by the fire, arms crossed, staring into the flames. He looked up quickly when he sensed them, and squatted down and warmed his hands before the fire. Kendras back, Nathan announced. Great. Colin replied, still staring into the fire. Kendra went to the fire, turning around so that she could get warm on all sides. Was that you on the hill, sitting under the tree? Colin asked. Me? Yeah, that was me. I didnt think anyone could see me. Its so dark. I could only see your silhouette. Colin shook his head. You shouldnt be alone. They were silent, listening to the crackling of the fire and their own thoughts. Kendra sighed. She wanted to complain, to tell them how hungry and cold she was, but she knew she shouldnt. They were all cold, hungry, and tired, and there was little relief in sight. Look, Kendra, Colin, why dont you go to the car and get some sleep? Ill keep watch, Nathan suggested. Colin looked at Nathan. Kendra was sure she saw a flash of suspicion on his face before he assented. Yeah, that sounds like a good idea. Kendra, you go ahead and use the car. Colin looked around on the ground, then sat down on the ground instead of going to the car. He gazed into the fire, then up at the moon. Kendra watched him for a while as the reflection of the flickering flames danced on his face. She looked away quickly when she realized she had been staring too long. Nathan was watching her, and then he looked away. She tried to snuggle further into her sweatshirt, tried to make herself smaller so that more of her would fit inside her clothes. She walked over to Colins old BMW. Come on, Colin. Itll be warmer in here. Maybe in a minute. Kendra opened the car door and sat down on the back seat. She punched up the pillow she had grabbed from the living room as they fled and slumped down in the seat, pulling the jacket shed left in the car over her. Six days. Every night, before she fell asleep, she counted the days to herself. Six days, five nights. Six days ago, she had stepped out of the shower, dried herself, walked into her bedroom, put on clean clothes these jeans and this sweatshirt and walked out into the crisp autumn day. She had gone out to the front porch in her socks and sat on a rocker. As she rocked back and forth and sipped coffee, she had felt at peace and admired the bright blue sky and the patchwork of colorful leaves. She had watched as children rode their bikes by on their way to school, as Mrs. Emerson across the street piled her brood into the car and drove away, and as Colins car pulled up in front of the house. Colin was her fathers teaching assistant, and he often stopped by to drop off papers he had graded or to have coffee with her father before going to the university to teach a class. But that morning her father had already gone. He had left early to drop off some dry cleaning and meet with the Dean for breakfast. That morning she had talked Colin into staying for a while and having some coffee, and had gone in to get him some while he sat in another rocker on the porch and waited. When she came out with his coffee she made sure she was smiling and welcome. They sat there a few minutes. She tried to make small talk, something Colin was dreadful at doing. He seemed to become more and more uncomfortable, and finally put his mug down on the wicker table and stood up. Well, I have to be going. Classes to prepare, papers to grade. He tried to smile. Thanks for the coffee, Kendra. He turned to go and was almost down the steps when there was a loud boom, then another and another. The porch shook and smoke filled the air in the area of the university, which was a mile away. What . . . they both said at once as they turned in the direction of the noise. They stood silently as they watched giant clouds of smoke fill the sky. There was another sound like thunder, then another. Finally, Kendra turned to Colin, horror in her eyes. Thats at the university! Some kind of explosion! she cried. Her eyes were huge. People came out into the street: Katie Emerson, Mrs. Peavey, Nancy York, Lisa Spano, five or six students from the apartment house two buildings down, where Nathan lived. What is it? someone shouted. What happened? Mrs. Peavey cried out. She stood in the street in her pink robe, holding a cup of coffee. They all turned toward the thunder and smoke, watching. Suddenly, Kendra ran into the house and found her running shoes. She quickly put them on and ran back outside. Then, without thinking, she began to run toward campus. Kendra, no! It was Colin. He ran until he was alongside her, then grabbed her arm. She stopped. What are you doing? As he spoke, there was another explosion. He looked around, trying to determine where it came from. Do you see what I mean? Dont go to campus! Theyre destroying it! But what if father . . .? She looked at him. She could tell he was thinking the same thing. Sirens were everywhere. Kendra looked down the road toward the fire station. She could see the front of the truck pulling out, watched as the car parked on the street in front of the firehouse exploded and debris flew through the air and hit the firemen and the truck and several nearby houses. Oh my God, she breathed. She put her hand on Colin to steady herself. Colin, Colin, Colin, oh my God. Whats going on?. She looked up at him, searching for assurance that her father was safe. People were screaming. Mrs. Peavey, still holding her cup of coffee, stood in the street, her eyes and her mouth wide open. Then she fled into her house and slammed the door. Colin put his arm around Kendra and led her back to her house. They walked up onto the porch. Nathan ran up behind them. Kendra turned at the sound of his footsteps. Ill take care of her, he said to Colin. Colin stepped away. Damn him! Kendra had dated Nathan several times in the past two months. She liked him, but not as much as he liked her. She could see that he thought now was his chance to be some kind of hero. Nathan, Im fine, she said, brushing her dark hair out of her eyes and pushing up the long sleeves of her sweatshirt. Lets all go inside, okay? Ill turn on the TV. They went into the comfortable living room and Kendra turned on the television. She sat down, remote in hand, and flipped through the channels until she found a local station. Lucy Penkava, a local newswoman, pretty and blonde in a pink suit, was staring into the camera. On her right were the words, Downtown bombing!! They all leaned forward and listened. We have a helicopter on the way, Lucy was saying. Charlie, what can you tell us? The picture changed to a disheveled-looking man. His face was smudged and his eyes were red. Lucy, all I can tell you right now is that there have been multiple bombings in the area of the university. They wont let us near the area, of course, but Ive been told that the library and the academic records building have been hit. On my left here . . . There was another terrific blast; Charlies hair actually blew to one side. The camera fell or was dropped, but continued to roll. On the screen were running feet, falling cement. Then, Lucy came back on. It looks like . . . is Charlie all right? Panic on her face, Lucy looked around the studio. Then she turned back at the camera and composed herself. We seem to have lost contact with that location, she unnecessarily explained. But it does look like another bomb has exploded. That would make someone handed her some papers. She took them and read the top page. Ladies and gentlemen, seven bombs were detonated in the downtown area today, near the university. This is a tragedy the likes of which our town has never seen. She shifted nervously in her chair. The mayor, police chief, and fire chief have all asked me to announce that no one will be allowed into that area. She hesitated for a second as she read to herself, then spoke again. Atomic Bomb EssayConsensus was that the only sound that was coming from the terrorists now was the tapping of keyboards and the hum of modems as they quietly worked to make the world their own. Colin rolled the car window down a few inches and lit a cigarette. Its 11, he said. Lets listen to the news. He turned on the radio and called out the window to Nathan. Nathan! News! Nathan slowly walked over to the car and got in the front seat with Colin. We now continue our around-the-clock coverage of the terrorist attack on the world by AID, or Art is Dead. It is Day 6 of the siege. We have this report from Warren Marcus, spokesman for AID: Greetings from the members of AID. We want to assure the citizens of the world that we only have your best interests in mind. All of you must agree that what we are doing is what is best for the world. It is now time for everyone to join in the betterment of the human race by joining AID. There is no longer room in the world for art or for artists. We do not wish to destroy those who produce art; rather, we would ask them to join us by using their talents to further the cause of science. Artists who join our battle will be asked to redirect their talents to the production of graphs, charts, and technical manuals. Writers who are now wasting time producing works of fiction can join our cause and be used, after a brief retraining period, in the production of scientific reports, software programs, and technical manuals. AID sees no value in the work of poets and suggests that persons who indulge in that pastime be used as child care workers or janitors. Many of you have asked what role we see for musicians. AID is presently formulating its view on music. I have to tell you that this is a difficult area for us. Many of us enjoy music and do not want to give it up. There is also the idea that good music is based on scientific and mathematical theory. We are hoping to find more support for that idea. I am now ready to announce that the work on Phase I of our plan is complete. Starting tomorrow morning, those of you who had to evacuate your homes may return. We promise you that, if you cooperate, no harm will come to you. Tomorrow is the 7th day of the start of our cause. Do not think, however, that it is a day of rest for us. You may not see us at work, but we will be there, quietly working from our computers. We will be changing the world as you know it. From now on, AID will control your telephone lines. We will control your cable TV. Airline flights will be under our control, as will the workings of most of the major utility companies. I could go on, but I think you get the picture. Colin turned off the radio. He and Nathan looked at each other, then turned to look at Kendra. Well? she said. Lets pack up and go home, Nathan replied. He got out of the car and went over to the fire and gathered up the few belongings they had left there. Colin slid over into the drivers seat and started up the car. Nathan got in on the passengers side. Okay, Colin, lets go! As they approached the exit to the park, the ranger on duty walked out of his booth. Colin stopped and opened his window. Did you hear? We can leave! Tomorrow, the ranger said, sighing. We need to go now. The ranger looked at them. But were not prepared to let you go. If you go, everyone will want to go. Well, were leaving. Colin said. He glared at the ranger. The man sighed heavily again, then opened the gate. Good luck. He said grimly. Nathan laughed. Colin turned onto the main road and drove back toward Goldfield. The road was deserted. What do you think? What are you going to do? Are you going to go along with them? Kendra asked. Do we have a choice? asked Colin. Yeah, we really dont. Besides, I tend to agree. Nathan replied. Kendra leaned forward and put her chin on the back of the front seat. So youre willing to go along with them? You, Colin? I thought you wanted to be an English professor! Well, I can still teach. Grammar and so forth. Kendra tried to see his face. He was unsettled; he must be. And you can still teach first grade, Kendra. Math, science, language. Computers. And I can still go to med. school. Surely thats acceptable, Nathan added. Kendras head was spinning with the implications of what was happening and going to happen. Green Eggs and Ham. She said quietly. Nathan laughed. What? And The Secret Garden. Come on, guys. Monet! Dickens! Garcia-Marquez, Colin. You love Garcia-Marquez. And Dostoevsky. And T. S. Eliot. He said mournfully. Prufrock. Nathan, what about you? What are you going to miss? Kendra asked quietly. Awe, cmon, guys. You can still read those books. Im not so sure, Colin said. Kendra may be right. Well never see a play again. Nathan, no more Jim Carrey movies! No more Beverly Hills Cop! I guess youre right. Nathan frowned, then shrugged. Oh well, itll give me more time to concentrate on medicine. Thats good, isnt it? I wont have to fret over the novel I always wanted to write, offered Colin. I wont have to worry about my students getting paint on their clothes, added Kendra sourly. She sat back in the seat and crossed her arms. They were entering the outskirts of Goldfield. No one spoke as they passed bombed-out churches. The library was a pile of rubble. Colin turned down Kendras street. Come in with me, please, she asked. They pulled up in front of her house and stopped. The house was dark. She slowly walked up onto the porch. From there she thought she saw a light in the kitchen. Dad! Kendra cried. She found her key, unlocked the door, and pushed it open. She ran through the house to the kitchen, not even noticing that the bookshelves that had been brimming over when she left were now empty. No one was in the kitchen. From the basement came the faint strains of music. Bach. Kendra opened the basement door and ran down the stairs. Colin and Nathan were right behind her. Her father sat in the corner on an old easy chair in a corner of the basement. He had put the chair, a table, and a lamp there years ago and often went down there to read. Daddy! she cried, and ran to him and knelt down beside him. Her father embraced her. He was thin and haggard and, like Colin and Nathan, had coarse bristle on his chin. Kendra, he said quietly. His eyes were full of tears. Finally, He was holding a thick book. Shakespeare, he said, holding it up. He looked much older than his 54 years. Colin came over and shook his hand, then Nathan did the same. Im glad youve all come back in one piece, said her father, smiling through his tears. I thought you were dead. In the bombing. Kendra asked softly. I was having breakfast with the Dean, remember? We met at a diner on Adams Road. We stayed there most of that first day. I knew you had been evacuated, but the phones there were dead. But I knew youd be all right. He put his hand on her face. Im so glad I got to see you one more time. What do you mean, father? she asked. He turned to her. Dear daughter, you know I cant live in this world. He squeezed her hand, then took a long drink from the glass on the table next to him. Youre all young. You can adapt. And I dont think any of you love art and music and literature as much as I do. He bowed his head. Jim Wright said we should fight this. But I know better. Ive seen it coming. Its been coming a long time. He reached down to the floor and picked up a notebook. Ive written a treatise on why this should not happen. On why it will end up killing us. He shook his head. You cannot stop man from creating. Oh, I know these people dont want us to stop creating; they only want us to stop creating art. But that will be the death of our spirits and our souls. Promise me you will read this, all of you. He took another drink. Kendra stared at the glass, then grabbed it. No! No! she screamed. Panicked, she looked at Colin. Call 911! She cried. Her father smiled sadly. Kendra, do you really think they will bother sending an ambulance to the home of a literature professor? Dont you know they control everything now? He put his trembling hand over his eyes. Robert Strobridge. Ellen Morris. Glenn Goldberg. And myself. Weve all written treatises, and weve all decided that this is the end. The three young people knelt next to the dying man. Kendra held both his hands, and Colin put his hand on the mans knee. Nathans hand rested on the mans shoulder. Kendras father breathed slowly a few more times. She put her mouth to his ear. I love you. I love you, she whispered. Her father slumped. The heavy book slid off his lap and onto the floor.
Friday, April 10, 2020
Diagnostic features (fear, mistrust, powerlessness, impulsivity, unstable self-image), treatment alternatives, childhood trauma, relationship with therapist. Borderline personality disorder is an increasingly common diagnosis amongst American psychiatric patients(1). This paper will cover three specific areas related to BPD: (1) a description of BPD, including its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment protocols, (2) Comorbidities which can commonly occur with BPD, and how they can differ from patient to patient, and (3) a review of current research to demonstrate new findings in the diagnosis and treatment of BPD.
Monday, March 9, 2020
Ethical Scenarios Ã¢â¬â Ethics Essay Free Online Research Papers Each team should respond in paragraph form to the questions that follow the scenarios presented below. Any disagreements or complications that occur within the team regarding the correct response should be noted in the Learning Team Reflection Worksheet for the week. Individual After the teams have completed their responses, each member should consider his or her individual responses and reactions to the various ethical perspectives. Rate yourself on the scale at the end of this document for each perspective. For each ethical perspective (duty-based, goal-based, rights-based, and human-nature), write a reflective paragraph in which you express your personal ethical statement regarding that perspective. The paragraph should state the numerical rating you gave yourself on the scale, and then supply an explanation for why you rated yourself at that level. SCENARIOS Duty-based (Deontological): This is a common issue in corporate America. There always seems to be individuals that never seem to pull their own weight. In this first perspective Michael is not pulling his own weight, so Donna who feels duty-bound creates a set of rules and tries to impose the rules on Michael. I have found that when you try to tell someone what or how they should do something they resist and eventually become even more difficult to work with. Sometimes it is easier to try to sit down with the individual and ask why there is a problem. After discovering the underlying reason you can then work together to come up with a solution to the problem. Determining what someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s work ethics are prior to developing a team can eliminate a great number of headaches. This will give you the opportunity to structure the team environment in a manner that will eliminate most problems before they arise. I have rated myself a four (4) on this because I have always been a duty-based person. The task at hand has never been the issue only to work as hard as possible to complete the task. Goal-based (Teleological): Setting team goals can be a difficult task because determining if the goals have been obtained on an individual basis can be subjective. For example, Corin and his team are in their last class at the University of Phoenix. Corin believes that he has reached his goal and therefore has no interest in the class. While the rest of the team believes that the goal to graduate has not been reached since they have not completed the Capstone class. Goals have to be defined well in advance and monitored. By monitoring the objective of the goal a team or individual can determine if the have lost sight of the goal then redefine the path to reach the goal. I rated myself a four (4) on this because I have been attempting to achieve a goal for 25 years. I have been on track at different periods and I have been off track at times. However, I have always kept my eyes on the goal and have made adjustment to my approach to achieve my goal. Rights-Based: Ã¢â¬Å"It is my god given rightÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ is probable the most abused statement in history. Right-based ideology is at times, the most dangerous and most powerful belief. Individuals have rightsÃ¢â¬ ¦ groups have rightsÃ¢â¬ ¦ however when a group of people with similar beliefs get together and try to force their beliefs on the masses watch out. Numerous atrocities have been perpetuated on society because a group has been successful in enforcing their rights. For example World War II was partially about one groupÃ¢â¬â¢s ideal that they were the master race and look what that small group was able to do. However, there are an equal number of examples where right-based ideology can be constructive as in the town meeting where the community gets together to discuss an ordinance on car noise levels. In this example the community as a whole is deciding the best course of action. Another example would be the Ã¢â¬Å"Civil Rights MovementÃ¢â¬ where Ã¢â¬Å"One man had a dreamÃ¢â¬ changed a nation. I originally rated myself a four (4) on this but, after writing about right-based issues I find that I am not admittedly a right-based thinker. I believe that right-based thinking is important and under the right conditions a powerful tool. So I changed my rating to a 3. Human-Nature: What is in one personÃ¢â¬â¢s nature in not necessarily in anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s? Karen believes that it is alright to try to cheat by copying a paragraph and not making the required references. It is often the easy road that defines Ã¢â¬Å"Human NatureÃ¢â¬ . Is it easier to copy and past the home work? Is it easier to say that you have done something when you honestly have not? The easy road is just too hard to resist some days. I rated myself a four (4) on this because, I believe that through had work the accomplishments are better savored. Research Papers on Ethical Scenarios - Ethics EssayResearch Process Part OneThe Hockey GameThe Project Managment Office SystemIncorporating Risk and Uncertainty Factor in CapitalArguments for Physician-Assisted Suicide (PAS)Analysis of Ebay Expanding into AsiaStandardized TestingEffects of Television Violence on ChildrenOpen Architechture a white paperBionic Assembly System: A New Concept of Self
Saturday, February 22, 2020
Automotive Industry Analysis According to Porter's - Research Paper Example This factor therefore forces existing firms to compete to gain more market share in major and minor niche product markets. The overall intensity of the rivalry among firms is therefore on the higher side. (Ã¢â¬Å" Automotive Manufacturing in the United StatesÃ¢â¬ 20) Relative Power of other stakeholders- High Rating Automotive industry is an industry which is based upon different stakeholders such as manufacturers, dealers, banks and financial institutions as well as government. The linkages between the stakeholders therefore are relatively complex and problems with one stakeholder can really see significant impact on the automotive manufacturing firms. During recent economic downturns, automotive sector was hit hardly due to credit crunch. The involvement of government was on the higher side too as US and other governments made equity participation to help automotive manufacturing firms to survive. Environmental groups are also significant stakeholders and their relative power ma y bring fundamental shifts in the industry due to threats posed by carbon emission to the environment. Overall government regulations are stringent and need to be complied with. ("General Motors Corporation Company Profile.Ã¢â¬ 30) Threat of New Entrants- Moderate Rating New entrants are firms willing to enter into the industry to take advantage of available business opportunities. The overall market size of the Automotive manufacturing market in US is over $200 billion as per estimates made in 2010. Such large market size therefore makes this industry one of the lucrative opportunities for new entrants despite the fact that cost of entry and other entry barriers are high. Typically, automotive sector requires high capital expenditure along with a well developed network of dealers and financial institutions however; those firms which are already established in other markets may find US market a relatively lucrative market. (Ã¢â¬Å"Automotive Manufacturing in the United StatesÃ¢â ¬ 18). This factor therefore may seems to be a high rating factor considering the fact that firms like GM are increasingly facing product recalls due to production and design faults. Established brands at international level like Toyota, Mercedes, and Volkswagen may get good brand recognition due to their international repute and presence. Threats of Substitutes- Moderate Rating Substitutes are the alternatives available to the consumers to use in lieu of current product under use. One of the key threats is the increasing use of public transports by the passengers due to higher cost of maintaining the vehicles. The increasing costs associated with gasoline, taxes, carbon emission therefore may restrict the ability of average household income holders to go for new cars. (Ã¢â¬Å" Automotive Manufacturing in the United StatesÃ¢â¬ 19) Used cars are another substitute available to the consumers especially due to overall uncertainty prevailing into major markets. It has been suggeste d that overall consumer confidence is at lower levels and consumers do not prefer to make bigger purchases. This threat however may be of moderate nature as factors like brand loyalty and high switching cost may restrict buyers to go for substitutes. Supplier Power- Moderate Suppliers provide essential raw materials to firms to manufacture finished goods. The overall materials used in the production of automotives are diverse in nature